Hadith and Etiquette Seminar

Introduction to Hadith Studies: The Importance of the Hadith Literature, The History of Hadith Compilation and a Summary of Hadith Terminology (Brother Tom Facchine)

  • Hadith is any statement, action, or approval attributed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)
  • Studying hadith is important for two main reasons:
    • Understanding how Islam was preserved from the time of the Prophet until now
    • Appreciating the hadith literature as coequal to the Qur’an in It’s legislative authority

History of Hadith Literature

  • Hadith compilation during the life of the Prophet: the labor of Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-‘Aas
  • Hadith compilation before the 2nd century after the hijrah:
    • Organized according to the name of the companions, not legal topic
    • Authentic material and inauthentic together
    • Organizing hadith literature according to legal topic: Imam Malik’s Al-Mawatta
  • The Golden Age of Hadith compilation: the 3rd century after hijrah
    • Motivation and Causes:
      • Authoring of ‘The Sound Seven’: Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmed, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah
      • Institutional support of Islamic scholarship
      • Refuting heretical sects
    • Types of works in the hadith literature:
      • Saheeh: Only hadith of the Prophet, only what is authentic; organized according to legal topic (eg. Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibban)
      • Musnad: Only hadith of the Prophet, both authentic and inauthentic material, organized by the name of the narrator/companion (eg. Ahmed, ibn Abi Shaybah, Ash-Shaafi’i)
      • Musannaf: Both hadith of the Prophet as well as opinions of the companions and their major students, both authentic and inauthentic material, organized according to legal topic (eg. Malik’s Al-Muwatta, Abdur-Razzaq, Ibn Abi Shaybah)
      • Mustadrak: Only hadith of the Prophet, these books are written by a later author scrutinizing the work of an earlier hadith compiler, inferring the criteria of the original author, and then narrating other hadith that the later author believes the earlier author would have accepted and compiled had he known about them. (eg. al-Hakim)
      • Mustakhraj: This is when a later author takes the work of an earlier hadith compiler and narrates the same hadith but with different chains and, if available, slightly different wordings in order to strengthen the authenticity of those narrations and better understand the meaning of the text.  (eg. Abi Awanah, Abi Bakr Al-Ismaili, Abi Dhar Al-Harwi)

Hadith Terminology

  • Assessing hadith according to the number of routes of transmission
    • Mutawaatir: reported by so many narrators at each level of the chain that it’s impossible they conspired to lie
      • Conditions:
        • Large number of narrators
        • At each level of the chain
        • Original narrator must have witnessed the event
      • Types:
        • Verbatim
        • General meaning
    • Ahad: doesn’t meet the level of mutawaatir.  Still equal in its legislative authority
      • Types:
        • Ghareeb: Only one narrator at any level of the chain
        • Azeez: Only two narrators at any level of the chain
        • Mashhoor: 3 or more narrators at every level, but not mutawaatir
    • Assessing hadith according to whom it is attributed
      • Qudsi: That which the Prophet attributed to Allah (meaning and wording)
      • Marfoo’: Statement of the Prophet
      • Mawqoof: Statement of a companion
      • Maqtoo’: STatement of a companion’s student (Tabi’i)
    • Assessing hadith according to its authenticity
      • Saheeh
        • Conditions:
          • Completely connected chain back to the Prophet
          • Everyone in the chain is righteous
          • Everyone in the chain is an accurate narrator
          • Doesn’t contradict stronger narrations
          • Free from hidden defects
        • Types:
          • By virtue of its own strength
          • By virtue of other narrations
      • Hasan: Same as Saheeh but its narrators are not quite as accurate or well-known
        • Types:
          • By virtue of its own strength
          • By virtue of other narrations
        • A weak hadith can be remedied by corroborating narrations if:
          • That the weakness is not significant
          • That the weakness be related to the accuracy, not the character or righteousness, of the narrator.
          • That the hadith doesn’t contradict stronger narrations
      • Weak: Doesn’t meet the conditions of Saheeh
        • Types of weakness:
          • Problems with the chain of narration
            • Mu’allaq: The whole chain is missing or only part near the beginning of the chain (furthest away from the Prophet)
            • Munqati’: A single narrator or more is missing from the middle of the chain, with the condition that more than one narrator not be consecutive.
            • Mu’dal: Two or more consecutive narrators are missing from the middle of the chain.
            • Mursal: That which a Tabi’ (student of a companion) attributes directly to the Prophet
            • Mudallas: One of the many types of ambiguity or concealment in the chain of a hadith.
          • Problems with a contradictory narration
            • Shadh: A hadith whose chain is authentic but whose content contradicts a more authentic narration or narrator.  The stronger narration is called Mahfoodh
            • Munkar: A hadith whose chain is not authentic and whose content contradicts an authentic narration or narrator.  The authentic narration is called Ma’roof
          • Hidden Defects
            • Mu’all: A hadith with a hidden defect that affects its authenticity
            • Mudtarib: A hadith narrated from several different, contradicting routes, each route equal in strength to other other
            • Mudraj: When one of the narrators is added to the text of a hadith so that it seems to be the words of the Prophet himself
            • Maqloob: When something in the hadith is reversed or switched around in the wrong order, either in the chain, the text, or both


Introduction to Hadith Studies: Introduction and Selections from Sahih Al-Bukhari (Brother Tom Facchine)

Intro to Saheeh Al-Bukhari

  • About Imam Al-Bukarhi
    • Name: Abu Abdullah, Muhammad bin Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Almughirah bin Bardizba Al-Ju’fi Al-Bukhari
    • Born: 914H in Bukhari
    • Died: 256H in Samarqand
    • Left home at 16 years old to study Islam
    • Teachers include: Ahmed, Yahya bin Ma’een, Ali Al-Madeeni, Ishaaq bin Rahaway, Abdullah At-Tanneesi.  Studied under more than 1,000 teachers
    • Students include: Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, ibn Khuzaymah, Abu Hatim Ar-Razi, Abu Zar’ah Ar-Razi
    • Works: Saheeh, The Creation of Servants’ Actions, Raising Hands in Prayer, Histories, books of weak hadith
  • The Book:
    • “The comprehensive Summary of Connected, Authentic Narrations of the Prophet’s Dealings, Sunnah, and Battles”
    • Book was written for three main reasons:
      • There was no previous book that only included authentic narrations
      • The request of his sheikh Ishaaq bin Rahaway
      • A dream he saw
    • The Methodology of Al-Bukhari’s compilation:
      • Organized by legal topic
      • Frequent, intentional repetition of hadith
      • Writing only the relevant part of the hadith according to the topic under discussion
      • Mentioning his own opinion on the ‘chapter’ titles
      • Occasional “mu’allaq” narrations
      • Acceptence of “mu’an’an” narrations on the conditions that:
        • The narrator not have a history of concealing who he heard the hadith from
        • That the actual meeting between narrators be proven
      • Number of Hadith:
        • 4,000 without repetition
        • 7,397 with repetition


Lessons in Islamic Character in Etiquette from Bulugh Al-Maraam – Part 1 (Brother Tom Facchine)

Importance of following proper Islamic character and etiquette

  • Obligatory, not optional for a believer
  • Especially important for Muslims in a non-Muslim country
    • Proper character is a form of dawah
    • Leaving good impressions on non-Muslims to associate with Islam

Hadith Covered:

Narrated by Abu Huraira:

Allah’s messenger said, “A Muslim has six duties towards another Muslim; when you meet him, greet him; when he invites you, respond to him; when he asks your advice, advise him; when he sneezes and praises Allah, say ‘May Allah have mercy on you’; when he is ill, visit him; and when he dies follow his funeral.” [Reported by Muslim]

Narrated by Abu Huraira:

Allah messenger said, “Look at those who are less fortunate than you but don’t look at those who are more fortunate than you, so that you will not underestimate the favors Allah has bestowed upon you.” [Agreed Upon]

Narrated by An-Nawwas bin Sam’an

I asked Allah’s messenger about righteousness and sin and he replied, “Righteousness is good character and sin is that which revolves in your heart, and you dislike that people come to know about it.” [Reported by Muslim]

Narrated by Ibn Mas’ud

Allah’s messenger said, “When three of you are together, two must not talk privately ignoring the other, till you mix with other people, since that will cause him grief.” [Agreed upon and the wording is Muslim’s]

Narrated by Ibn Umar

Allah’s messenger said, “A man must not make another get up from his place and then occupy it himself, but you should spread out and make room.” [Agreed Upon]

Narrated by Ibn Abbas

Allah’s messenger said, “When one of you eats, he must not wipe his hand till he licks it, or gives it to someone to lick.” [Agreed Upon]

Narrated by Abu Huraira

Allah’s messenger said, “The young should greet the old, the one who is passing by should greet the one who is sitting, and the small group should salute the larger one.” [Agreed Upon]  A narration by Muslim has: “And the one who is riding should greet the one who is walking.”

Narrated by Ali

Allah’s messenger said, “When people are passing by, it is enough if one of them offers the greeting on their behalf, and it is enough for those who are sitting if one of them replies.” [Reported by Ahmad and Al-Baihaqi]



Lessions in Islamic Character in Etiquette from Bulugh Al-Maraam – Part 2 (Brother Tom Facchine)

Hadith Covered:

Narrated by ‘Amr bin Shu’aib on his father’s authority that his grandfather narrated Allah’s Messenger as saying,

“Eat, drink, wear clothes, and give sadaqa without extravagance or pride.” [Abu Da’ud and Ahmad reported it.  Al-Bukhari mentioned it as Mu’allaq]

Narrated by Jubair bin Mut’im

Allah’s messenger said, “The one who severs ties of blood relations will not enter Paradise.” [Agreed upon]

Narrated by Abdullah bin Amr

The Prophet said, “Allah’s pleasure is in what is pleasing to parents and Allah’s displeasure is in what is displeasing to parents.” [At-Tirmidhi reported it.  Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim graded it as sahih]

Narrated by Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba

Allah’s messenger said, “Allah has made unlawful for you disobedience to your mothers, burying your daughters alive, holding back what Allah has ordered, and demanding what you are not entitled to, and He hates for you engaging in gossip, asking many questions about what is not necessary and squandering wealth.” [Agreed upon]

Narrated by Anas

The Prophet said, “By Him in whose hand is my should, a slave of Allah does not believe perfectly till he loves for his neighbor or his brother what he loves for himself.” [Agreed upon]

Narrated by Abdullah bin Amr bin Al’Aas

Allah’s messenger said, “A man’s reviling of his parents is one of the major sins.”  It was asked, “Does a man revile his parents?”  He replied, “Yes, he reviles the father of a man who then reviles his father, and he reviles a man’s mother who then reviles his.” [Agreed upon]

Narrated by Abu Huraira

Allah’s messenger said, “If anyone removes one of the anxieties of this world from a believer, Allah will remove one of the anxieties of the Day of Resurrection from him; if anyone relieves the burden of one who is destitute, Allah will relive his burden in this world and in the next; and if anyone conceals the faults of a Muslim, Allah will conceal his faults in this world and in the next.  Allah helps His servant as long as the servant helps his brother.” [Muslim reported it]

An-Nu’man bin Bashir said

“I heard Allah’s messenger saying (Nu’man pointed with his two fingers to his ears) ‘What is lawful is clear and what is unlawful is clear, but between them are certain doubtful matters which many people do not know.  Thus, he who guards against doubtful matters keeps his religion and his honor safe, but he who falls into doubtful matters falls into what is unlawful, just as a shepherd who pastures his animals around a sanctuary, all but grazing therein.  Surely, every king has a sanctuary, and Allah’s sanctuary is His prohibitions.  Surely, there is a piece of the flesh in the body, if it is healthy, the whole body is healthy, but if it is diseased, the whole body will be diseased.  Surely, it is the heart.'” [Agreed upon]



Foundational Topics in Islamic Law (Imam Alhagie Jallow)

This lecture derives its content from the book Umdah al Fiqh by Ibn Qudama and aims to:

  • provide a basic understanding about the fiqh of purification for worship
  • briefly discusses the obligation of Salah (prayer) and conditions for Athan (call to prayer)


Umdah al Fiqh, like most other fiqh books begin with the topics of purification because salah is a main pillar of Islam an purification is a precondition for its validity.  The book discusses the fiqh related to physical purification required for salah through following topics:

  • Rulings of water
  • Using utensils and vessels
  • Using the lavatory
  • Wudu’ (minor ablution)
  • Nullifiers of wudu
  • Ghusl (major ablution)
  • Tayammum (dry ablution)

NOTE: Linguistically the word “fiqh” means “understanding”.  Therefore, in the religious context this means a comprehensive understanding of the entire religion through the recognition of the religious rulings regarding worship, personal conduct and interpersonal dealings and the evidences jurists used to derive them.

Rulings of the Types of Water:

Water was created pure and purifying.  Purity cannot be attained from any liquid besides water.  However, for its suitability to be used for purification the scholars categorize water as follows:

  • Pure and purifying
  • Pure not purifying
  • Impure


Pure and purifying:

  • Pure water: running water including that of seas, rivers, rain, snow, and wells.  It is water which is pure within itself and can be used to purify other substances.
  • Used water: collected after dripping from someone who made ablution.  It can be used to remove ritual impurity.
  • Water mixed with pure substances: water which has been mixed with a pure substance is considered pure as long as it has not been affected to a point where we can no longer call it water.  This sort of water may also be used for purification.



  • Water mixed with impure substances: It is the water in which impurities (urine, feces etc.) has changed one of its three characteristics: odor, color or taste. This water has then become impure and its usage is prohibited.


Pure not purifying:

  • Changes within water: When water changes, and the change renders it such that it must be called something else like tea, juice, etc., then it may not be used for purification.


Removing Various Impurities:

For performing prayers correctly, it is important to ensure that the body, clothes and place of worship are all clean.

  • Removing impurity from clothes:
    • If it is clear where the impurity (urine, blood etc.) is on the clothes then spot cleaning them off the impurity should be sufficient.
    • If it is not certain where the impurity on clothes is, then washing the entire garment is necessary.
    • If in doubt whether there is any impurity or not use the principal of certainty over doubt. That means if one is sure the clothes were clean and doubted whether it became soiled by impurities, it should be assumed it is pure; and vice versa.
  • The impurity of the dog and the pig should be washed seven times, including one time with soil.
  • It should be sufficient for the rest of the impurities to wash them three times until purified.
  • It’s sufficient to remove the impurity of a male infant’s urine that hasn’t started eating regular food to sprinkle the area with water so it’s wet, but not soaked.
  • Prostatic secretions (al-madhee), takes this same ruling as a male infant’s urine. A trivial amount of it [al-madhee]will be excused. Likewise, small amount of blood is exempt.
  • The semen of a human and the urine of the animals whose flesh can be eaten are all pure.


Use of Utensils:

  • Forbidden Utensils:
    • It is not lawful to use gold & silver vessels in purification or otherwise, like eating & makeup. That is because of the statement of the Messenger of Allah: “Do not drink in gold or silver vessels and do not eat in dishes made of them, for they are for them (unbelievers) in this life and for you in the Hereafter”.
  • Allowable Vessels:
    • It is permissible to use all pure vessels and possess them.
    • The usage of the vessels (and utensils) of the People of the Book and their clothes, unless they are known to be impure, is allowed.


Etiquettes of Using the Lavatory:

  • It is recommended for the one who enters the lavatory to say: “In the name of Allah I seek refuge in Allah from the evil and all that is evil (or the male and female demons) and from the cursed filthy Satan. ”
  • It is recommended to say the following upon exiting from the lavatory: “All praise be to Allah who rid me of harm and gave me health.”
  • Another recommendation is to enter with the left foot and exit with the right foot.
  • It is not allowed to enter with anything bearing the mention of Allah except for a need.
  • While reliving oneself it is prohibited to have one’s back towards the qiblahh, because of the saying of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah bless him and give him peace): “Do not face the qiblahh, while defecating or urinating, and do not give your backs to it.”That would be permissible indoors.
  • It is prohibited to use the right hand on the privates while reliving or wiping oneself clean.
  • To clean, one should wipe themselves odd times, preferably with water but wiping alone at least thrice should be sufficient.
  • Every pure substance that could remove the filth may be used for wiping, except for excrements of animals, bones and sacred substances [such as food and papers that bear
    the mention of Allah and/or verses of the Quran.


Wudu (Minor ablution):

  • Mandatory acts of Wudu:
    • Intention is necessary: Wudu’ and other acts of worship are not valid without being intended. That is because of the statement of the Messenger of Allah (May Allah bless him and give him peace): “Verily, deeds are by their intentions, and verily every person will have [the reward of] what he intended.”
    • Then say “Bismillah” (in the name of Allah).
    • Start by washing hands thrice, then rinsing mouth and nostrils thrice, followed by washing the face thrice (running wet fingers through beard in case of men.).
      And then washing hands and forearms to the elbows thrice. Then wiping the head including ears, and finally washing the feet to the ankles thrice.
    • Reciting the following supplication is recommended right after making wudu:
      • ashhadu al-la ilaha illa allahu wahdahu la shareeka lahu wa ashhadu anna muhammadan ‘abduhu wa rasooloh” (I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, one without partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is his servant and messenger)
    • It is mandatory to ensure the washing of each part once.
    • Doing all this in the sequence mentioned.
    • And not deferring the washing of any part until the part prior to it becomes dry.


Nullifiers of Wudu:

  • discharges from the private parts.
  • Impure discharges from elsewhere in the body, if they are in copious amount.
  • Deep sleep while laying down.
  • Touching the privates with his hands
  • Touching a woman with sexual intent.
  • Eating camel’s meat.
  • apostasy from Islam.


Ghusl (major ablution):

  • What makes it necessary:
    • The ejaculation of semen
    • Sexual intercourse
    • Menstruation and postpartum bleeding in women
  • Mandatory Acts of Ghusl:
    • Having the intention and preferably starting by saying “Bismillah” (in the name of Allah)
    • Washing the entire body at least once
    • Rinsing the mouth and the nostrils


Tayammum (Dry Ablution):

It is the Islamic act of dry ablution using purified sand or dust.  Tayammum is performed by striking the surface of the earth with two hands one time and then wiping the face and hands.


Conditions of Tayammum:

  • Inability to use water either:
    • because there is no water
    • fear of harm if water is used due to sever cold of fear of illness
    • if the water is needed to drink in times of need
    • if water is too expensive to obtain
    • if it is dangerous to obtain
  • The commencement of the time of prayer
  • Making the intention
  • Availability of soil that has the particles of dust


The nullifiers of minor ablution nullify tayammum as well.


Salah (prayer):

  • Obligation of prayers:
    • The five prayers are mandatory upon every adult sane Muslim except for the menstruating woman or the one having postpartum bleeding.
    • Whoever rejects its obligation out of ignorance should be educated of it. If he rejects it out of stubbornness, he becomes a disbeliever.
    • It is not permissible to defer it beyond its mandated time except for one who intends to combine it
  • Athan (the call to prayer) and Al-Iqamah (call to initiate it):
    • They are prescribed for the five prayers only, and for men only.
    • The mu’adhen (caller to the prayer) should be honest, with good and loud voice and knowledgeable of the times of prayers.
    • It is recommended that he makes adhan while standing on a high place, facing the qiblahh and in a state of ritual purity (wudu’).



Selected Fiqh Topics (Imam Alhagie Jallow)


Selected Lessons from the Life and Etiquette of the Prophet (Imam Alhagie Jallow)